The first Cooperative Research Unit was established at Iowa State University in 1932, based largely on the efforts of conservationist and political cartoonist Jay Norwood “Ding” Darling. Since that time, and with the authorization of the Cooperative Units Act by Congress in 1960, most states have Units established at their land grant universities. The North Carolina Cooperative Fishery Research Unit was established in 1962, and it was expanded to a combined Fish and Wildlife Unit in 1988. Administration of Cooperative Research Units was under the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service until 1993, when the National Biological Service was formed. Currently, the Cooperative Research Unit program is located within the Biological Resources Division of U.S. Geological Survey.